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In the life of the Turks, baths were not only a bathing place, but also Centers for health, social and cultural activities. The use of water for health purposes, which is one of the vital requirements of human beings, has led to the construction of water spaces such as baths and Hot Springs. The baths, one of these types of buildings, respond to the needs of people especially to be washed and cleaned. In addition, the baths have taken architectural shape in accordance with the religious beliefs of the societies in every period and have been a part of social lives. Hamam word; The Arabic Hebrew words Hammam=bath, bath=hot are derived from the words. Bath, in short, can be described as “a place for bathing, purification and healing. “ The use of bathing in the prevention and treatment of diseases dates back far. MO. IV. It is known that during the century there were baths in Greece where the body was treated and treated. The baths captured its main architectural character in the Roman era. During this period, baths built on large areas became the center of sporting and cultural activities as well as cleanliness. Anatolian Turkish baths according to the water used, natural hot water and artificial heating system working with the bath is possible to split into two. The structures, built on a natural hot water source and often used for health purposes, are called Hot Springs. Anatolian Turkish baths have a very important place in Turkish social life as they are the scene of many social events related to Entertainment, birth and marriage as well as cleanliness. Nowadays, more cleaning, health and beauty in bath hot and cold water used for pools, aromatic foam, mud, algae, clay, honey and oil massages and herbal body treatments it is possible to see.
One of the most important institutions of our civil architecture is the bath. The baths, which have a great importance in terms of art and architecture, are also important in terms of cultural history. It resembles a mosque with its dome and some other architectural features. In terms of the interior design and architectural organs of these establishments, there are very simple ones as well as very magnificent ones. Today, when you look at both pre-Ottoman and Ottoman period Turkey, many ruins of Turkish baths can be seen. The Ottomans, who considered the tradition of the previous Muslim states very well, began to establish charitable facilities on all sides as soon as they took over the administration. The important parts of the internal structure in the baths, which have a special architectural style, are usually the parts called camegah (dressing place), coldness (drying and changing place of loincloth) and temperature (washing place).
Baths before the Ottoman period
According to historians and archaeologists, independent buildings were built to bathe in Mesopotamia, Babylon, India and ancient Egypt. However, the construction of large-volume buildings, the existence of a self-heated system and the running of hot water coincides with the Roman period. They apply a kind of sub-heated heating structure they use to heat houses to washing buildings, and the “Roman bath” emerges. Later it was known as “Turkish bath” because it developed under the influence of Ottoman culture and architecture, but still Rome had a large share in the foundation of the bath.
The architecture of the bath during the Roman period
M.He. 1st. monumental bath buildings were built in Rome during the century. M.He. There were 170 public baths in 33 years. The bath building in Rome has the characteristic of a large complex with statues, swimming pools, large gardens and libraries, where sports competitions are held, poetry is recited and songs are sung during the holidays. Diclaotianus, a Roman Bath whose remains are still visible, is known as the largest bath in world history. It covers an area of 11 hectares, about 14 times the size of a football pitch. Side, Ephesus and the ancient cities in Turkey can also come across the ruins of Roman Baths.
The historical development of the bath between the Roman Empire and the Ottoman period
You can see the effects of Roman Baths in Spain, England, North African countries and Anatolia in the whole geography where the Roman civilization spread. With the collapse of the Empire, the bath culture continues in different civilizations. 15. until the end of the century, monumental bath buildings can be found in Andalusia. Later, this culture continued during the Umayyads, Abbasids, Seljuks and Ottomans.
Effects of Bath on Ottoman culture
The Turkish bath has a strong place in Ottoman culture, from language to literature and everyday life. Women and men go to the bathhouse to bathe. It is important for women’s sociability. There are traditions such as going to the bath on Thursday nights, having the baths open until the morning on the eve of the holidays –which continues today. Anatolia has had a bath culture since ancient times. But it is the Turkish bath tradition that adds both topicality and immortality to this culture. Although there is no hygiene in the baths today and appliances such as tubs and whirlpools are preferred in the houses, this is mostly seen in the big cities, and in Anatolia this tradition remains up-to-date as it has been for centuries. While the Turks lived in Central Asia, they also moved the existing bath traditions to Anatolia, where they migrated. They placed their own traditions on top of the marble bath culture left by those who lived before them. In time, the baths were the places where very special days were celebrated. For women that continues even today “bridal”, “maternity bath” baby “forty bath”, “votive bath”, “bath getting wet” men’s “groom bath”, “circumcision bath”, “soldier’s bath” and “holiday bath” is current, if you go in Anatolia, including large cities, are conducted as a ceremony.
BATH AND HEALTH
Tradition of physical and spiritual purification
The benefits of a steam bath were known years ago. Today, steam baths are considered as a necessary method to purify the skin and body and to purify it from toxin, increase blood circulation, stimulate the immune system and promote complete physical and mental fitness.Steam baths relax the person and reduce stress. Muscle aches or problems with arthritis, relaxation occurs when the heat relaxes the muscles, reducing pain and inflammation.Nov. People with asthma and allergic distress, breathing becomes easier with the heat expanding the airway of the lungs. Hot does not cure common cold, but it reduces congestion and helps rapid recovery. Steam baths are good for your skin as they increase skin blood flow and create perspiration. An adult person loses about 1 lt of sweat or water per hour on average in the bath. A good perspiration removes dirt from the pores and a layer of dead skin on the surface and gives the skin a healthy glow.. Acute fluid loss causes a decrease in total body water weight, but as this is temporary, it will quickly recover its full amount with re-fluid intake. Hot is a therapy agent that has been used for a long time to improve in many cultures. All the functions of our body depend on chemical reactions and chemical reactions are directly affected by heat. This is due to an impact on our tissues and health.